What Is The Meaning Of Different Stages Of Load Shedding?


Stage 1– during this stage 1000mw of the national electricity will be shed. This stage implements load shedding for approximately 3 times over a 4-day period for two hours. This stage allows the least amount of electricity to be shed. During stage 1 industrial areas are not affected by load shedding. if there are 8 areas to be affected, only four will be affected on day 1 and the other 4 will be affected on day 2. 

Stage 2- this stage allows for up to 2000 mw of the national electricity to be shed. Stage 2 doubles the frequency of stage 1. When load shedding is on this stage your area will be scheduled for load shedding 6 times over a 4-day period for two hours at a time. It could also be for 6 times over an 8-day period for four hours at a time.  

Stage 3-this stage increases the frequency of stage 2 by 50%. Areas will be scheduled for load shedding 9 times over a 4-day period for two hours at a time. Stage 3 allows for 3000mw of the national load to be shed.  

Stage 4- it double the frequency of stage 2. It allows for 4000mw of the national load to be shed. This means areas will experience load shedding 12 times over a four-day period for two hours at a time. Or It could be 12 times over an eight-day period for four hours at a time. Stage 4 is the final option for Eskom to prevent a national crisis. It can also mean that load shedding can be experienced without any warnings. 

How Will Carbon Taxes Affect Petrol Prices In South Africa?


Carbon taxes will cause an increase in the price of fuel and energy. Petroleum producers and refiners will factor in the carbon tax into their pricing policies. Diesel will be greatly affected as it has a higher carbon tax than petrol. This is because diesel has a bigger impact on the environment than petrol therefore the carbon tax will be higher. It is estimated that the carob tax for Diesel will be 13c/liter and for petrol it will be 11c/liter. 

How Many Jobs Will Be Automated By 2030?


There are still studies being done to determine the number of jobs people will lose to automation. The estimates are that more and more jobs will be lost in the richer nations like Germany and the US. Poorer nations that do not have enough money to invest will not be affected as much. Some of the many jobs that will be lost include, 

Insurance underwriting– there will be an increase in need analysis and suitability analysis.  

Warehousing and manufacturing-jobs that require repetitive and sequence f tasks will be likely automated first. Machines are likely to be quicker and produce higher quality products than human beings.  

Customer services. These are also going to be replace d with machines.  

Research and data will also be automated. Already companies rely on google to provide information required by businesses.  

It is estimated that a total of 57% jobs in OECD(an international group consisting of 36 nations)will be automated. 

Eskom Alternatives


Alternatives are considered to be means of fulfilling the same needs and purpose as the originally proposed projects. Alternatives are supposed to minimize the impact and maximize benefits. There quite a number of alternatives to Eskom which citizens can utilize.  

Coal- coal is the most widely used and easily accessible form of energy. According to http://www.bullion.org.za,the south African Chamber of mines estimates 53 billion tons of coal which are available to sustain South Africa many years to come.  

Solar- solar is also another alternative to Eskom. Preferred for being environmentally clean and sustainable. It is also a cheap source of energy. solar energy does not produce any emissions into the atmosphere. It is also readily accessible as South Africa enjoys more sunshine days per year. Using solar to heat water can reduce the amount of electricity used per day.  

Wind– another alternative is harnessing the wind by using wind turbines. This type of electricity generation is mostly practical in areas that have strong and steady winds. Wind energy is clean and does not pollute as it does not produce any harmful substances to the environment. Wind energy is suitable for both rural and urban areas and is affordable and easy to access.  

Generators– most south Africans are making use of generators to generate power. This form of energy generates sound pollution. A generator is a machine that is used to transform chemical or mechanical energy into electrical energy. 

Biomass energy is obtained from methane gas which is produced from landfill sites, farm, household and organic waste. Examples of this include wood waste, agricultural residues, paper and solid waste. 

Ocean power-ocean power can also generate electricity through the creation of waves. The wind blows over the ocean and energy is produced. It is estimated that the ocean can generate enough power to sustain the world’s electricity. Ocean energy is very costly to produce and has possible high impacts on the environment.  

10 Things That Are Turning 50 in 2019

  1. The 1969 Moon Landing:
    Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldring were part of the Apollo ii mission that made its first landing on the moon. These two men spend about 21 hours on the moon during the summer of 1969.
  2. The Internet:
    The 7th of April 1969 is cited as the official date for the birth of the internet. Professor Leonard Kleinrock send the first message over a computer network.
  3. Sesame Street:
    The famous children’s show first hit the TV screen on November 10 1969. Drawing viewers from around the world the show has attracted children from all over. 
  4. The first ATM (Automatic Teller Machine):
    Was first introduced and installed in the US in 1969. It was launched at Chemical Bank Customers in Rockville Centre New York. 
  5. I know why the caged bird sings:
    This autobiography of Maya Angelou was originally published in 1969. The book looks into Angelou’s early life to the time she had a child at the age of 16. 
  6. First human eye transplant:
    The first human eye transplant was made on April 22 1969. The eye transplant was made on a 55-year-old named John Madden. Although the transplant was successful, the eye that Madden received was not properly preserved so he never regained his sight.
  7. Tic Tacs:
    These were first introduced as” refreshing mints” in 1969. Originally these tiny sweets were orange and mint. However new flavors have been added over the years. The tic tacs are now sold in over 100 countries. 
  8. Scooby Doo:
    For 50 years now the Scooby Doe team has been solving mysteries. Introduced on 13 September 1969, Scooby and his gang have captured the attention of many around the world. 
  9. Jennifer Anniston:
    Born February 11 1969 in Sherma Oaks in California. Born to actors John Aniston and Nancy Dew. She rose to stardom through her role on friends as Rachel Green.
  10. The Beetles’ rooftop Concert:
    January 30 1969 the Beetles performed their last impromptu show for 42 minutes. It was the first time in more than two years that they had a live performance. The plug was pulled off after a bank manager called the police lodging a noise complaint. 

What Is The Process Of Credit Analysis?


Information collection stage

The first step is to collect the information pertaining to the client with regards to their financial history, record of loan payment, character, individual reputation and insolvency. The credit analyst should know about the purpose of the loan, amount and if it will be enough for the project. Information included should cover sources of repaying the money. 

Analysis stage 

During this stage information is analysed to judge accuracy. The analyst needs to scrutinise or thoroughly check identification information, trade licence, corporate charter, resolutions and any other documents submitted. The financial ability of the client is also checked. Using balance sheet, cash flow statements, income statements the analyst works out different financial ratios. The analyst will also look at the viability and effectiveness of the project which the loan is intended for. The banker will feel free to grant loan if the project is productive, expandable and profitable. They analyse the possibility /ability of the client to repay the loan by looking at the next cash flow and income of the applicant.  

Decision making stage 

The analyst identifies and measures the credit risk associated with the loan application and determines whether the level of risk inherent is acceptable or not. If the analyst is satisfied that the risk is acceptable and convinced that the loan will be repaid, he/she prepares and submits recommendation to the appropriate loan approval authority.  

What Credit Analysts Look For?

  • The credit analyst once convinced that the consumer is deserving of credit, will act as the client’s advocate in presenting the application to the bank’s loan committee and also guiding it through the bank’s internal procedures.  
  • The details obtained are also used to finalise the loan documentation, terms, rates and any special agreements which need to be highlighted. 
  • A credit analyst is a profession who possess expert knowledge in evaluating the creditworthiness of securities, individuals and companies.  
  • They determine the likelihood that a borrower can repay their financial obligations by assessing the borrowers financial and credit history. 
  • They also determine whether the economic conditions are favourable for the consumer to pay back the loan.  
  • Credit analyst also evaluates financial statements using ratios to determine the credit scores of consumers. 
  • Credit analyst provide unbiased recommendations to banks that allow them to offer loans to individuals and businesses. 

Key Ratios To Analyse Creditworthiness

  1. Debt to equity ratio: This allows lenders to compare the assets of the company with its debts. Financial institutions consider companies with a high ratio of debt to equity as a higher risk than companies with little or no debt. Calculating a debt-equity ratio is done by using a balance sheet to divide the company’s liabilities by its shareholder’s equity. 
  2. Operations margin: The profit of a company makes a percentage of its total sales which is called an operating margin. This helps to separate the gross revenue of a company and its net profit which measures a company’s profitability. 
  3. Current ratio: This is a liquidity ratio that measures the ability of a business to pay for its expenditure by expressing the number of times assets exceed their liabilities. Total assets are divided by total liabilities. 
  4. Inventory ratio: This measures a company’s production and purchasing efficiency. It notifies investors of the number of times a company has sold its inventory. It is calculated by dividing the cost of products /services by the cost of inventory. If a company has a higher ratio it means they are more efficient at turning over their inventory and they are most likely to be considered by lenders. 

How To Get A Good Credit Score


The consumer needs to have a credit history. A credit history is important as it allows lenders to evaluate how well you have settled your debts in the past. Your credit history also allows them to assess your affordability. 

Timeous payments of bills– paying bills on time also helps with a good score. This also goes to small bills that seem to be irrelevant, like the gym or library fee. These small bills might be found on your credit report and consequently affect your credit score.  

Keeping credit balances low also helps with a good credit score. Maxing out credit balances might be viewed as reckless and desperate. Credit card balances should be within 30 per cent of all your combined credit limits. 

Knowing what is required to get a good credit sore also helps maintain it. Five key pieces of information are used. These are payment history, level of debt, credit age, mix of credit and recent credit.  

Paying more than the minimum of what you are asked on your account also helps with a good score. Paying only the required amount might be viewed as distress.  

Check your credit sore. Knowing your credit score is important. It helps guard against fraudulent activities on your account. It also allows you to check for any errors in the information presented to Bureaus.  

Different Types Of Credit Analysis Techniques.

  • Common-size financial statements and financial ratios remove the effect of size, allowing comparisons of a company with peer companies (cross-sectional analysis) and comparison of a company’s results over time (trend or time-series analysis). 
  • Activity ratios measure the efficiency of a company’s operations, such as collection of receivables or management of inventory. Major activity ratios include inventory turnover, days of inventory on hand, receivables turnover, days of sales outstanding, payables turnover, number of days of payables, working capital turnover, fixed asset turnover, and total asset turnover. 
  • Liquidity ratios measure the ability of a company to meet short-term obligations. Major liquidity ratios include the current ratio, quick ratio, cash ratio, and defensive interval ratio. 
  • Solvency ratios measure the ability of a company to meet long-term obligations. Major solvency ratios include debt ratios (including the debt-to-assets ratio, debt-to-capital ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and financial leverage ratio) and coverage ratios (including interest coverage and fixed charge coverage). 
  • Profitability ratios measure the ability of a company to generate profits from revenue and assets. Major profitability ratios include return on sales ratios (including gross profit margin, operating profit margin, pretax margin, and net profit margin) and return on investment ratios (including operating ROA, ROA, return on total capital, ROE, and return on common equity).